Sweet chestnut is a good source for starch,; chestnuts of all varieties generally contain about the same amount of starch. Download our free Tree ID app for Android and iPhone to identify the UK's native and non-native trees. Instead, fructose is mostly responsible for the sweet taste.  C. sativa is characterized by high moisture content which ranges from 41% to 59 % and a considerable level of starch (≈40 g 100 g−1 dry matter). Bark on young trees is a dull silvery purple, with vertical cracks. in Europe, from its origin to its diffusion on a continental scale", "Genetic structure of Castanea sativa in Turkey: evidence of a hybrid zone", 10.1002/1099-1417(200009)15:6<621::AID-JQS524>3.0.CO;2-L, "Reworking the idea of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) On this two day course led by Nick McMillen; students will be shown how to prepare bark and then to weave a small foraging basket with a steam bent chestnut handle. These trees can develop vast girths of up to 2m in diameter. Sweet chestnut bark extract is particularly rich in tannins; therefore, we have investigated the ability of the extract to protect cultured cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress. The leaves also contain tannin.  Generally, glucose content in European chestnuts is very low and ranges from zero to traces. The tree is to be distinguished from the horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum, to which it is only distantly related. This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 05:04. It is thought to have survived the last Ice Age in several refuges in southern Europe, on the southern coast of the Black Sea with a main centre on the southern slope of the Caucasus and in the region of north-western Syria, possibly extending into Lebanon. The leaves are completely different, with sweet chestnut having single, long, serrated leaves and horse chestnut having hand-shaped leaves with deeply divided lobes or ‘fingers’.  Like Theophrastus, Latin authors are sceptical of the sweet chestnut as a fruit, and Pliny the Elder even goes as far as admiring how well nature has hidden this fruit of apparently so little value. The wood is of light colour, hard and strong. By hand with nets: This technique is less time-consuming and protects the fruits from injuries. Flora Europaea: Learn how and when to remove this template message, List of Lepidoptera that feed on chestnut trees, colonisation of the Italian peninsula by the Greeks, "The Chestnut: A Multipurpose Resource for the New Millennium", "Ink disease in chestnuts: impact on the European chestnut", "The Cultivation of Castanea sativa (Mill.) It can be used for carpentry, joinery and furniture.  A hair shampoo can be made from infusing leaves and fruit husks.  The nut itself is composed of two skins: an external, shiny brown part, and an internal skin adhering to the fruit. , Three different cultivation systems for the sweet chestnut can be distinguished:, The field management is dependent on the cultivation system.  The optimal pH value of the soil is between 4.5 and 6, and the tree cannot tolerate soil compaction. Nevertheless, centuries-old specimens may be found in Great Britain today. VAT No. It's an A-Z tree guide in your pocket. Flowers and Fruits. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF … A tree grown from seed may take 20 years or more before it bears fruits, but a grafted cultivar such as 'Marron de Lyon' or 'Paragon' may start production within five years of being planted. Keep in touch with the nature you love without having to leave the house. Credit: Martin Fowler / Alamy Stock Photo. 2296645), is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Woodland Trust.  Further clues pointing to this theory can be found in the work of Pliny the Elder, who mentions only Greek colonies in connection with sweet chestnut cultivation. cultivation in Roman times: New data from ancient Campania", "Distribution and economic potential of the sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) Since the beginning of the 20th century, due to depopulation of the countryside and the abandonment of the sweet chestnut as a staple food as well as the spread of chestnut blight and ink disease, C. sativa cultivation has dramatically decreased. Mature trees can reach up to 35m in height. Mechanical: The fruits are collected with a machine that works similarly to a vacuum cleaner. Four processes are decisive for the degrading process of sugar while cooking: hydrolysis of starch to oligosaccharide and monosaccharide, decomposition of sucrose to glucose and fructose, caramelization of sugars and degradation of sugars. Sweet chestnut. They are used for flour, bread making, a cereal substitute, coffee substitute, a thickener in soups and other cookery uses, as well as for fattening stock. Discover our recent challenges and successes and how you can help. Record all sweet chestnut … They belong to the same family as oaks and beeches. nut shell than in extracts of eucalyptus bark. White lenticels (breathing pores) may be seen on young twigs / shoots. Sweet chestnut trees live to an age of 500 to 600 years. Sweet Chestnut Bark. While cleaning the soil from the leaves and pruning is the norm, the use of fertilizer, irrigation and pesticides is less common and reserved for more intensive cultivation. in Anatolia, northeastern Greece and southeastern Bulgaria. Sweet Chestnut is monoecious: it has separate male and female flowers. The other native trees that bloom late in the year around the same time as American chestnuts are Black Locust and Sourwood. We want to make sure everyone in the UK has the chance to plant a tree.  The Corsican variety of polenta (called pulenta) is made with sweet chestnut flour.  In the mid-seventh-century Lombard laws a composition of one solidi is set for felling a chestnut tree (or, also, hazel, pear or apple) belonging to another person (Edictus Rothari, No. In contrast to a cold storage system, where the fruits are stored at low temperatures in untreated air, the controlled environment method avoids flesh hardening which negatively impacts the processability of the product.. 8 no. Also, the capsule makes the harvest more complicated and even painful for the worker. Note the diseased bark is still fairly smooth but has longitudinal cracks.  Several Greek authors wrote about medicinal properties of the sweet chestnut, specifically as a remedy against lacerations of the lips and of the oesophagus. After a year, the young trees are being transplanted..  The energy value per 100 g (3.5 oz) of C. sativa amounts to 891 kJ (213 kcal).  Contrary to that notion, other scientists found no indication of the Romans spreading C. sativa before the fifth century. Discover The Sweet Chestnut Share a family meal or a quiet dinner at The Sweet Chestnut in Dunfermline.  Today's phylogenetic map of the sweet chestnut, while not fully understood, shows greater genetic similarity between Italian and western Anatolian C. sativa trees compared to eastern Anatolian specimen, reinforcing these findings. However, high sugar amounts seem to have a negative impact on the fiber content. In south east England sweet chestnut is coppiced to produce poles.  Once cooked, chestnuts acquire a sweet flavour and a floury texture similar to the sweet potato. Image of form, branch, figure - 129117383 2013;2013:471790. doi: 10.1155/2013/471790. In general, the climate should be similar to viticulture. 1982873. Sweet chestnut is a deciduous tree which can reach 35m when mature and live for up to 700 years. It is a species introduced to the UK and widely planted and extensively naturalised , especially on … In Kent there are large woodlands full of Sweet Chestnut, planted for the production of hop poles used in the brewing trade. , The sweet chestnut tree grows well on limestone-free, deeply weathered soil. There are three harvesting techniques: The total world chestnut harvest was 1,17 Mio Tons in 2006, but only 151 000 Tons were C. It is native to Southern Europe but has now become common on light non-chalky soils throughout Britain. The flowers of both sexes are borne in 10–20 cm (4–8 in) long, upright catkins, the male flowers in the upper part and female flowers in the lower part. The ink disease is named after the black exudates at the base of the trunk. In the past, its characteristic and nutritional components gave sweet chestnut an important role in human nutrition due to its beneficial health effects. Its year-growth (but not the rest of the tree) is sensitive to late spring and early autumn frosts, and is intolerant of lime. , Castanea sativa is considered as having very interesting nutritional characteristics.