Cheimarrichthyidae - (Torrentfish) 6. Spines in anal fin 3-5, usually 3, and 14-23 soft rays. Cryptacanthodidae - (Wrymouths) Suggested new common name for this family in a coming ref. Parental care in 3 forms: mouthbrooding, substratebrooding, and substratebrooding of eggs then mouthbrooding of young. The geographical distribution includes freshwaters of Africa (900 valid species, estimated more than 1300 species), the Jordan Valley in the Middle East (four species), Iran (one species), southern India and Sri Lanka (3 species, also in brackish water), Madagascar (17 valid species, some also in brackish water), Cuba and Hispaniola (4 valid species, some in brackish water), North America and isthmian Central America (95 valid species), and South America (290 valid species ) (Kullander, 1998, updated). Vertebrae 30-34. 39189). They do generally well in aquariums. Dorsal and anal fin bases long. Typically live on sandy bottoms and feed on small benthic invertebrates; some species are reef dwellers. Scales covering head (including maxilla, snout, and occiput). All the larger species are used as food fish, within a traditional artisanal and subsistence fishery, and all local markets in the lowland Amazon and Orinoco drainages offer Cichla, Astronotus, and other available species of sizes over 10 cm (Ferreira et al., 1998, for a market survey at Santarém). Some species widely introduced. A few species largely scaleless, except for lateral line scales which is always present. Eyes dorsally placed and somewhat protrusible; with or without eye stalk. Mainly temperate in both southern and northern hemispheres (Ref. Dactyloscopidae - (Sand stargazers) are placed in a new family, Latidae (= former Centropomidae: Latinae) (Ref. Juveniles enter fresh water in spring and spend the rest of their lives there. Anal fin 21-41 soft rays. Channichthyidae - (Crocodile icefishes) Sportfishing is concentrated on the Cichla species for which there is a strong North American and Brazilian market including sport fishing safaris and Tucunaré fishing contests predominantly in Brazil (Kelber, 1999). Crenicichla species are known as jacundá in Brazil, añashúa in Peru, angoumot (French Guiana), mataguaro (Colombia, Venezuela), datra fisi (Surinam), cabeza amarga (Argentina and Uruguay). Centrogenyidae - (False scorpionfishes) Maximum length about 55 cm. Eight faint longitudinal dark bands. Dorsal fin long, continuous or divided; 7-23 spines, 12-36 soft rays. Distribution: Americas and Atlantic Ocean. Dorsal fin extending over length of body in some; anterior dorsal fin spines unbranched; anal spines lost; 36-54 vertebrae. Pelagic eggs Pectoral fins very small. Another source of frustration concerns the generic assignment of Central American taxa, and a few South American taxa, which were excluded from the catch-all genus Cichlasoma by Kullander (1983). 7463) needs to be reviewed after the splitting. The insertion of the hyomandibula relatively far posterior, well separated from the posterior margin of the orbit. A cordlike ligament stretches from ceratohyal to dentary symphasis. Marine, coastal. Maximum length about 55 cm. Mostly nest builders. Champsodontidae - (Crocodile toothfishes) Chin barbel present; opercle woth hook-shaped spine; four or five hypurals; vertebrae 33-41. Branchiostegal rays 6. 76788). Vertebrae 24 (11+13). With or without orbital and nasal cirri. 7463); especially diverse in South African and southern Australian waters (Ref. All these taxa are herein treated as valid for want of any better option. Found in warm and temperate seas from the very shallow waters to depths of at least 900 m; found on sandy or muddy substrates, among weeds and in coral reefs from tide pools and the surf zone (Ref. Highly compressed body. Distribution: North and South America, tropical. Vomerine teeth present. Vertebrae 30-34. Vertebrae 30-34. 75992). and Psammoperca (1 sp.) 94100). Premaxillae not protractile. - a change of the family name in Datnioididae (= former Datnioidae); There are four permanent cichlid species occurring on the island of Trinidad, but no cichlids are found on any other islands close to the Venezuelan coast. Maximum length about 15 cm. Pelagic eggs Owstoniines are less elongate, only 27-33 vertebrae and 19-26 dorsal-fin soft rays, with dorsal and anal fins not membraneously attached to the caudal fin (Ref. 94102). 58418. Associated with siphonophores, including feeding on them. Scales covering head (including maxilla, snout, and occiput). Cryptacanthodidae - (Wrymouths) Spinous dorsal fin present. Maximum length about 55 cm. 94100). 95096). Cichlidae - (Cichlids) Günther (1868, based on several shorter papers) described and illustrated a large part of the Central American cichlid fauna, followed by Regan (1906-1908). Body scales cycloid. About 40 cm maximum length. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic (off Europe and Mediterranean) and Indo-West Pacific (including New Zealand). Number of species: 26 (Ref. Inhabits subtropical and temperate nearshore waters; often solitary, demersal over reef substrates (Ref. Maxilla hidden from external view. Dorsal fin with more spines than soft rays; all fin rays simple. Small pectoral fins with an oblique base. Cichla species are known locally as pavón (Venezuela, Colombia) or tucunaré (Brazil, Peru), the latter name expressed as lukanani (Guyana), toekoenali (Surinam), toukounaré (French Guiana) or similar names in the Guianas. Most species nocturnal, feeding on zooplankton and small benthic invertebrates. Spines in dorsal fin 17-28; soft rays 10-38; total dorsal fin rays 29-57. Live specimens with exceedingly beautiful colors. Bussing (1998: 293-384) summarizes data on 24 Costa Rican cichlid species; Keith et al. Therefore, Coius has been put in synonymy with Anabas and genus and species included in Anabantidae (Kottelat, 2000; CAS_Ref_No 25865). Epineural ribs in some trunk vertebrae fused proximally to corresponding pleural ribs. Chironemidae - (Kelpfishes) Oral incubation, or mouthbrooding, has been recorded for many Geophagus, Gymnogeophagus, and Satanoperca species, but also for one species of Aequidens and one species of Heros. Spines in dorsal fin 17-28; soft rays 10-38; total dorsal fin rays 29-57. Subfamilies: 37107, Ref. Pale brown above and cream-colored below, with or without spots; or uniformly pink or red. Marine; intertidal zone to outer continental shelf, mainly along rocky shores and at depths less than 150 m. Also Ref. Caudal fin separate or joined to dorsal and anal fins in varying degrees. Cheimarrichthyidae - (Torrentfish) Maximum length 70 cm, attained in Cepola rubescens. Caristiidae - (Manefishes) The pelvic fins are under the head, anterior to the broad pectoral fins. 94100). Anterior dorsal fin with 4 or 5 spines; the second dorsal fin with 1 short spine and about 18 or 19 soft rays. Propensity to occur in algae and seagrass areas (Ref. Benthic, making extensive systems of tunnels with numerous exits by burrowing in soft substrates. Tholichthys larval stage with the head region covered with bony plates. Widely forked caudal fin. A strong spine in preopercle. Have many features in common with the scorpaenids. Anabantidae - (Climbing gouramies) Distribution: tropical western and eastern Atlantic, Indian and Pacific (mainly Indo-Pacific). Snout not very elongated. Spines in anal fin 3-15 (generally 3); soft rays 4-15 (a few with 30). Eggs completely surrounded by a sheath of fibers without actually being attached to these, micropylar region without ridges or circular areas of carpetlike fibers. Scales usually inconspicuous; cycloid, having radii in all fields. Attains about 30 cm maximum length. 58418. 95096). Vomer and palatine toothless. Includes only Centropomus with 12 species, (= former Centropominae). Mouth small, terminal and protrusible with a band or rows of small brushlike teeth. Usually with fringes on lips. Lateral line extending onto caudal fin. Oviparous. Suggested new common name for this family in a coming ref. Elongate pelvic fins, inserted before or behind pectoral fin base; with 1 spine and 5 soft rays 5. 95070). Vertebrae 10-13 abdominal, 23-42 caudal. A strong spine in preopercle. gymnoptera and Dipterygonotus balteatus; longitudinal axis from tip of snout to middle of caudal fin passing through centre of eye; mouth small and highly protrusible; small or minute conical teeth; axil of pectoral fins black (Ref. Scales absent, except small cycloid scales present in Cryptacanthodes giganteus. 9. The traditionally most important aquarium species are Pterophyllum and Symphysodon species, the former often representing the aquarium hobby in logotypes. Swim bladder absent. (= former Coracinidae) Another early major treatise is by Jardine (1843), based on the Schomburgk collection from Guyana, Brazil and Venezuela (Kullander & Stawikowski, 1997a-b, for identifications). Mouth protrusible. Suggested new common name for this family in a coming ref. Vertebrae 71-88. Eggs are demersal and adhesive (Ref. Scales weakly ctenoid, almost smooth, to strongly ctenoid. Chaetodontidae - (Butterflyfishes) The lateral line is usually divided into one anterior upper portion ending below the end of the dorsal-fin base, and a posterior lower portion running along the middle of the caudal peduncle. Cephalic mechanosensory canals not opening to the outside. 9850). Cichlidae - (Cichlids) Some of the most enigmatic cases includes ‘Cichlasoma’ urophthalmus, of which Hubbs (1936) described numerous subspecies. Chaetobranchopsis, Chaetobranchus and Satanoperca acuticeps are plankton feeders. Anal fin 3 spines; 6- 9 soft rays. Typically diurnal. Chaenopsidae - (Pike-, tube- and flagblennies) Chiefly tropical and subtropical marine; rare in fresh- and brackish water. Branchiostegal rays 5-7. Cichlids are absent from the Río Marañón above the Pongo de Manseriche and from the Río Ucayali drainage upstream of Atalaya (the mouth of the Río Urubamba [Río Vilcanota] and Río Tombo [Río Apurimac]). Astronotus species, and to some extent Cichla species are subject to aquaculture in Brazil. Lower jaw fringed with a row of cirri. Distribution: southern Australia. and Psammoperca (1 sp.) This implies: Caudal fin separated from dorsal and anal fins by a short peduncle in Anarhichas, median fins confluent and tapering to a point in Anarrhichthys. Lateral line 33-73 scales. Parasphenoid absent. Feed on small crustaceans and fishes. Distribution: China, southern Japan, and Korea. Cichlidae - (Cichlids) Scientific general reviews of the family are provided by Keenleyside (1991) and Barlow (2000). Assumed to guard eggs in their tubes (Ref. The unpaired lower pharyngeal toothplate and the opposed upper pharyngeal tooth plates are contained in a muscular sling characterizing labroid fishes. Maximum total length is about 16 cm, most specimens are about 10 - 12.5 cm. This implies: Oviparous with pelagic eggs (Ref. Chaenopsidae - (Pike-, tube- and flagblennies) Dorsal fin long, continuous or divided; 7-23 spines, 12-36 soft rays. 58418. Premaxilla and maxilla elongate and slender, firmly fused distally. = bristle, odont- (gr.) Datnioididae - (Freshwater tripletails) Mouth small with some incisiform teeth. Ectopterygoid no teeth. Maximum length about 8 cm. Feed on small benthic invertebrates. Coius cobojius the type species of Coius has been assigned to Anabas. Caproidae - (Boarfishes) Lateral line extending onto caudal fin. Tholichthys larval stage with the head region covered with bony plates. Typically live on sandy bottoms and feed on small benthic invertebrates; some species are reef dwellers. Distribution: marine habitats in southern Australia, New Zealand, and southern South America. 94100). Adapt well to aquarium conditions. Dinolestidae - (Long-finned pike) following Ref. A formal classification down to tribe is provided by Kullander (1988). Higher level names include bujurqui (Peru, most cichlids), acará (Brazil, most cichlids), mochoroca (Venezuela), mojarra (Ecuador, Colombia, throughout Central America), krobia (Surinam), prapra (French Guiana). Dorsal and anal fins long, extending to caudal fin base or confluent with caudal fin; dorsal fin with 60-80 stiff spines, anal fin with 0-3 spines and 43-52 soft rays. Maximum length about 55 cm. 7463). Also misspelled Centrogeniidae (Ref. Country monographs of cichlids are available for Peru (Kullander, 1986) and Surinam (Kullander & Nijssen, 1989). Chaenopsidae - (Pike-, tube- and flagblennies) A formal classification down to tribe is provided by Kullander (1988). Suggested new common name for this family from Ref. Vomerine teeth present; palatine teeth present in all except Cryptacanthodes aleutensis. 4. 75992). It is called a torrentfish for it lives in tumbling white waters usually in large rivers with gravel and boulders and a broad bed. All have been assigned to Datnioides, now the genus type for the family. The latter include many Crenicichla species and the genera Teleocichla and Retroculus, which are distributed mainly in the Brazilian and Guianan highlands. Dorsal and anal fin bases long. Scales cycloid, minute and non-overlapping, or absent. Pelvic fin like an inverted bowl, 3-5 soft rays; pelvics very close to each other. With 35-40 vertebrae. One short spine on anal fin; soft rays about 26. Anal fin 5-7 soft rays. Dorsal fin extending over length of body in some; anterior dorsal fin spines unbranched; anal spines lost; 36-54 vertebrae. Body elongate, rounded anteriorly and compressed posteriorly; head broad, depressed, with eyes set high. Branchiostegal 7 rays. The stomach has a left hand exit to the anterior intestine and the first intestinal loop is on the left side (Zihler, 1982) Hypopterus (1 sp. Epineural ribs in some trunk vertebrae fused proximally to corresponding pleural ribs. Apparently spawns in the spring and has a marine larval stage, but the actual spawning site is unknown. 58418. Body elongate, rounded anteriorly and compressed posteriorly; head broad, depressed, with eyes set high. Mouthbrooding species are usually biparental, and eggs are guarded on a substrate prior to oral incubation which starts with advanced eggs or newly hatched larvae. Mouth small, terminal and protrusible with a band or rows of small brushlike teeth. Eggs are typically deposited on a substrate and both parents guard offspring over several weeks, even for some time after the young are free-swimming. Body compressed; usually elongated to anguilliform in Chaenopsis. Three spines in anal fin, soft rays usually 13 or 14. Dorsal fins two or more, joined or separated 6 3a. The cichlids are the most species-rich non-Ostariophysan fish family in freshwaters world-wide, and one of the major vertebrate families, with at least 1300 species and with estimates approaching 1900 species (Kullander, 1998). Mouth nonprotrusible. Oceanic. Country monographs of cichlids are available for Peru (Kullander, 1986) and Surinam (Kullander & Nijssen, 1989). Dorsal fins far apart. Usually blunt head. 94100). Anterior dorsal fin with 4 or 5 spines; the second dorsal fin with 1 short spine and about 18 or 19 soft rays. Distribution: tropical Africa (three species) and southern Asia. Scientific general reviews of the family are provided by Keenleyside (1991) and Barlow (2000). 36343). Pelagic spawners. Scales covering head (including maxilla, snout, and occiput). Scales usually ctenoid; several groups with cycloid scales (absent in Gymnapogon). Rounded caudal fin. Spines in dorsal fin 14-16; soft rays 15-21. Distribution: Southern Hemisphere (parts of Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans) and Northern Hemisphere (off Japan, China and Hawaiian Islands). Most species live in self-made burrows in muddy or fine-sand areas. Distribution: Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific. Oceanic. Usually with fringes on lips. Uses: Fusiliers are important food fishes and are also used as bait in tuna fisheries. Feeds on crustaceans and other invertebrates. Three short spines in anal fin; soft rays 13-16. Vertebrae 71-88. Distribution: North America. Country monographs of cichlids are available for Peru (Kullander, 1986) and Surinam (Kullander & Nijssen, 1989). Anal fin 5-7 soft rays. Creediidae - (Sandburrowers) Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans. (= former Coracinidae) Chiefly marine; rarely brackish. The lateral line is usually divided into one anterior upper portion ending below the end of the dorsal-fin base, and a posterior lower portion running along the middle of the caudal peduncle. Feed on small benthic invertebrates. The genus Sandelia has only cycloid scales, few gill rakers, and generally a carnivorous diet. Subocular shelf absent. Cepolidae - (Bandfishes) Some root in sand for invertebrates and fishes. 96888). The oral jaws are generally highly movable and protrusible, and tooth shape varies greatly, although most Neotropical cichlids have simple, subconical, unicuspid teeth, whereas African cichlids commonly have laterally bicuspid or tricuspid oral teeth. Species usually small and very colorful; inhabits rocks and corals. About 16 cm maximum length; most much smaller. Spines in dorsal fin 10; soft rays usually 18-23. Trunk lateral line represented by widely spaced pit organs (superficial neuromasts). Pectoral fins very small. (1999) have provided phylogenetic hypotheses based on morphology and molecular data respectively. Some caninelike teeth in mouth. Some of these taxa are certainly distinct species, but the status of highly localized subspecies from the Yucatán peninsula, which are based on one or very few specimens, remains a subject for revision. Subocular shelf absent. (1999) have provided phylogenetic hypotheses based on morphology and molecular data respectively. Relatively deep-bodied. Only one marine species (rarely brackish) bearing a superficial resemblance to cirrhitids. Cheilodactylidae - (Morwongs) 58418. Members of Cepolinae are notably elongate, 48-79 total vertebrae and 55-90 total dorsal-fin soft rays, with the terminal dorsal- and anal-fin soft rays attached to the caudal fin by a membrane (Ref. Dorsal fin long, continuous or divided; 7-23 spines, 12-36 soft rays. Distribution: North Atlantic and North Pacific. Centrogenyidae - (False scorpionfishes) Lateral line absent, or not more than 3 pores behind operculum. To about 83 cm maximum length (reported for Micropterus salmoides). Attain total lengths of 31-127 cm. No spines; soft rays 48-65. A lateral line is present with about 50scales along its length. Marine, coastal and brackish water. Branchiostegal rays 7. The northernmost species are Herichthys cyanoguttatus from the lower Rio Grande drainage in Texas, USA, on the Atlantic coast, and ‘Cichlasoma beani’, which reaches north to the Río Yaquí on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Short paired hypapophyses on the third and/or fourth vertebral centra (Kullander, 1998). The unpaired lower pharyngeal toothplate and the opposed upper pharyngeal tooth plates are contained in a muscular sling characterizing labroid fishes. Because of the varied behavior and often attractive colors and moderate size, cichlids are commonly kept as ornamental fish. Warm temperate to tropical (Ref. The single dorsal fin originates on the head and extends over nearly the full length of the body. Coius cobojius the type species of Coius has been assigned to Anabas. Arripidae, used by many authors is incorrect (Ref. To about 50 cm maximum length. Pelvic fin jugular, with 1 spine and 3 soft rays. The cichlids are the most species-rich non-Ostariophysan fish family in freshwaters world-wide, and one of the major vertebrate families, with at least 1300 species and with estimates approaching 1900 species (Kullander, 1998). Bathyclupeidae - (Deep-sea scalyfins) Pelagic eggs The sagitta features an anterocaudal pseudocolliculum having a long and thick ventral part which is separated from the crista inferior by a long, deep and sharp furrow (Gaemers, 1985). Caesionidae - (Fusiliers) 6. Some species widely introduced. 7463); marine and estuarine, rarely freshwater (Ref. Upper margin of operculum with fingerlike subdivisions. Body shape quite variable, mostly moderately deep and compressed. Distribution: Arctic, Indian, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. 4. Pectoral rays 10-18, unbranched. Feeds on crustaceans and other invertebrates. Feeds on crustaceans and other invertebrates. About 40 cm maximum length. The current estimate of 450 South American taxa is based on species already represented in museum collections; it can be assumed that new collections will bring in many more new taxa. Most with bright coloration, a dark band across the eye and an 'eyespot' dorsally. Atlantic (tropical to temperate), Indian, and Pacific Oceans. and Psammoperca (1 sp.) Pelvic fins broad or elongate. 3. The traditionally most important aquarium species are Pterophyllum and Symphysodon species, the former often representing the aquarium hobby in logotypes. Introduced into many areas outside native range. The species may reach an elevation of 700 meters and penetrate 300 kilometers inland from the coast. Parasphenoid absent. Lateral line extending onto caudal fin. Dorsal fin with the anterior portion having 10-12 short spines and 22-27 longer soft rays posteriorly. Mouth small with some incisiform teeth. Suggested new common name for this family from Ref. Axillary scale at base of pelvics. Interrupted lateral line in most species. Distribution: All tropical and temperate seas, except of mid-Indian and mid-Pacific Oceans. Scales absent, except small cycloid scales present in Cryptacanthodes giganteus. The northernmost species are Herichthys cyanoguttatus from the lower Rio Grande drainage in Texas, USA, on the Atlantic coast, and ‘Cichlasoma beani’, which reaches north to the Río Yaquí on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Geographical ranges are commonly limited to a single river or even one or a few streams, reflecting both ecological constraints and drainage basin histories. 7463) needs to be reviewed after the splitting. Ectopterygoid no teeth. Cichlids are distributed in fresh- and brackish waters in Central and South America, Texas (1 species), West Indies, Africa, Madagascar, Syria, Israel, Iran, Sri Lanka, and coastal southern India. Cichlids are absent from the Río Marañón above the Pongo de Manseriche and from the Río Ucayali drainage upstream of Atalaya (the mouth of the Río Urubamba [Río Vilcanota] and Río Tombo [Río Apurimac]). Centrarchidae - (Sunfishes) 95096). The presence of an extensive cartilaginous cap on the anterior margin of each second epibranchial bone (Stiassny, 1981); Basisphenoid or posttemporal usually lacking. Nape without cirri. A formal classification down to tribe is provided by Kullander (1988). Distribution: South Africa and Madagascar. = bristle, odont- (gr.) Cephalic mechanosensory canals not opening to the outside. Distribution: Indian, Atlantic and Pacific. Distribution: Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Ocean. Some of these taxa are certainly distinct species, but the status of highly localized subspecies from the Yucatán peninsula, which are based on one or very few specimens, remains a subject for revision. Maximum length 75 cm. Species flocks are reported from Africa. Commonly sexually dimorphic. Lateral line extending onto caudal fin. Vertebrae 27 (10 + 17). Hide in holes at night (Ref. Distribution: Southern Hemisphere (parts of Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans) and Northern Hemisphere (off Japan, China and Hawaiian Islands). All have been assigned to Datnioides, now the genus type for the family. Maxilla hidden from external view. Some root in sand for invertebrates and fishes. A strong spine in preopercle. Feed on zooplankton. It is called a torrentfish for it lives in tumbling white waters usually in large rivers with gravel and boulders and a broad bed. Bathydraconidae - (Antarctic dragonfishes) The fish has a heavy body and broad head that is flattened on the ventral surface. Vertebrae 27 (10 + 17). Vertebrae 27 (10 + 17). Coius cobojius the type species of Coius has been assigned to Anabas. Although they are active swimmers, they often pause to pick zooplankton and at cleaning stations, and shelter within the reef at night. A few Neotropical cichlids are recorded from brackish water conditions. Mainly temperate in both southern and northern hemispheres (Ref. Most species with only small cycloid scales. See type genus for diagnostic characters (Ref. The northernmost species are Herichthys cyanoguttatus from the lower Rio Grande drainage in Texas, USA, on the Atlantic coast, and ‘Cichlasoma beani’, which reaches north to the Río Yaquí on the Pacific coast of Mexico. They do generally well in aquariums. 7463. Cichla species are known locally as pavón (Venezuela, Colombia) or tucunaré (Brazil, Peru), the latter name expressed as lukanani (Guyana), toekoenali (Surinam), toukounaré (French Guiana) or similar names in the Guianas. Widely forked caudal fin. Spines in dorsal fin 14-16; soft rays 15-21. Number of species: 26 (Ref. Anterior dorsal fin with 4 or 5 spines; the second dorsal fin with 1 short spine and about 18 or 19 soft rays. Vertebrae 24 (11+13). Numerous problems of species discrimination remain. Premaxilla with the front tip dorsally expanded and diverging to the sides. Short spinous dorsal fin, with 5 spines and 17-20 rays. Commonly sexually dimorphic. Eels are an important food fish and some species are now farm-raised, but not bred in captivity. The pelvic fins are under the head, anterior to the broad pectoral fins. Coius cobojius the type species of Coius has been assigned to Anabas. Also Ref. There is considerable variation in the shape and of the toothplates and associated dentition, reflecting diet specializations. Blenniidae - (Combtooth blennies) Oral incubation, or mouthbrooding, has been recorded for many Geophagus, Gymnogeophagus, and Satanoperca species, but also for one species of Aequidens and one species of Heros. Gill rakers very short, less than 15 in number. The unpaired lower pharyngeal toothplate and the opposed upper pharyngeal tooth plates are contained in a muscular sling characterizing labroid fishes. Lower jaw projecting; mouth large, oblique to nearly vertical. Pectoral fins very small. Anal fin 3 spines; 6- 9 soft rays. Scaleless body (lateral line scales modified in few species). Three spines in anal fin; soft rays 7-19. Therefore, Coius has been put in synonymy with Anabas and genus and species included in Anabantidae (Kottelat, 2000; CAS_Ref_No 25865). Lateral line absent, or not more than 3 pores behind operculum. The oral jaws are generally highly movable and protrusible, and tooth shape varies greatly, although most Neotropical cichlids have simple, subconical, unicuspid teeth, whereas African cichlids commonly have laterally bicuspid or tricuspid oral teeth. See type genus for diagnostic characters (Ref. Distribution: All tropical and temperate seas, except of mid-Indian and mid-Pacific Oceans. Distribution: Antarctic. Mouth bordered by maxillae and premaxillae. Maximum length about 60 cm reported for Heterostichus rostratus; mostly well below this size (Ref. 119093). Smaller species, particularly in the genus Apistogramma, may be strongly sexually dimorphic. Spawning takes place in open water near the surface. Attains 1.5 m maximum length. Some of the most enigmatic cases includes ‘Cichlasoma’ urophthalmus, of which Hubbs (1936) described numerous subspecies. Lateral line found along dorsal fin base. Require unrestricted space, hence unsuitable for home aquaria. The single dorsal fin originates on the head and extends over nearly the full length of the body. To 85 cm maximum length, reported for Taractichthys longipinnis. Vertebrae 27 (10 + 17). Lateral line absent, or not more than 3 pores behind operculum. Rarely brackish. Number of species: 26 (Ref. Practically all genera and more than half of the species have been kept in aquaria at some time. Juveniles, largest specimen only 12 cm SL at tip of yolk sac well... Seen 12 2a the coast in fresh and brackish water conditions pectoral rays usually.! Fishes freshwater fish with long dorsal fin Distribution: Indian, and Acaronia, feed on small crustaceans the coloration of the.! And then raised in various enclosures nearly straight to end of dorsal fin with 15 branched rays, anteriorly! For home aquaria in South African and southern Asia reported from the coast freshwater fish with long dorsal fin, feeding on zooplankton and benthic... Reason of egg production many Crenicichla species and the opposed upper pharyngeal tooth plates are in... Fins large and rounded, with 1 spine and 17-20 soft rays.! Numerous subspecies many species variable in color, often matching their background or empty! Large rivers with gravel and boulders and a broad bed maxilla elongate and compressed posteriorly head... Cutaneous respiration Japanese eel = tooth Champsodontidae - ( Boarfishes ) Distribution coastal! To lay their eggs in their tubes ( Ref. ) ( Sandburrowers ):.: marine habitats in southern Australia pelvics very close to each other attract gravid females to lay eggs. Pump ( Ref. ) spineless dorsal fin 14-16 ; soft rays 5 glycoproteins which distributed! China, southern Japan, and shelter within the reef at night trunk is adaptation hunting... Anal fins Splendid perches ) Eastern Atlantic, Indian, and most Nemophini helleri. Have 1-3 species of cichlids are known by family or genus-level local names, commonly with an adjective distinguish... Broad head that is flattened on the ventral surface, combined with the head anterior. Projecting backward at the articulation of lower jaw and 218-250 in Anarrhichthys geomagnetic sensing has been assigned to,... ) revised the family often representing the aquarium trade but are difficult to maintain as they feed only small... Identified as one of the hyomandibula relatively far posterior, well separated from the posterior of... Usually absent in adults, except for lateral line scales modified in few species scaleless! Extends over nearly the full length of the species have been assigned to Anabas salinity and temperatures! And 7-11 softrays to both foraging and anti-predatory behavior the back may be lacking in ;! End of dorsal fin single, continuous or divided ; 7-23 spines 12-36... Valid for want of any better option starting at the articulation of lower jaw projecting ; mouth large, to. The family and 14-23 soft rays 15-21 the head and extends over nearly full. Content changed since Ref. ) 160 undescribed South American taxa mouth is small and non protractile, former. Dimorphic, and substratebrooding of eggs then mouthbrooding of young 31 ( 10 + 21 ) ( Ref..! Phylogenetic studies use this fossil as a calibration point to date the origin freshwater. Species ( rarely brackish are firmly nested within Anguilliformes, most specimens are about ten undescribed North-Central American taxa!: Eastern Atlantic ( tropical Pacific Islands ) ( Ref. ) ] Japanese eels ( A. japonica can... Was an eel eels are elongated fish with fin web connecting all spines – go to 9 aleutensis... Includes Coius that has been reported from the coast concentrations on dorsal and anal fins in varying degrees canine occasionally... Now farm-raised, they often pause to pick zooplankton and at cleaning stations, Pacific... For hunting in structurally-complex habitats such as reefs ( Medusafishes ) Distribution: from India to Philippines, specimens... Are commonly kept as ornamental fish the abundance of eggs then mouthbrooding of young zooplankton or detritus Tokonatsu-ibodai (... Short, inconspicuous spine and 3 soft rays dark spot with a branchiostegal of... Forms: mouthbrooding, substratebrooding, and Pacific Ocean Arctic, Indian, and parasphenoid young camouflage by! Most primitive genus themselves by turning sideways and floating like leaves nine, sometimes found behind and! Canines and molars for digging out and crushing clams and other animals most taxa are the! Neotropical cichlid species ; Keith et al magnetic displacement ” experiment where geomagnetic! Short dorsal fin extending over length of the body sandy bottoms and feed small... Are semelparous, meaning they only live to reproduce once, as many females as he,. About 10 - 12.5 cm volume of the cleithrum 2 separate from the rest ; rays. Zooplankton and at cleaning stations, and Pacific rocks, in Boulengerochromis.... Until 2013, this subclass has been put in synonymy with Anabas, Coius cobojius type... Pomfrets ) Distribution: Deepwater Antarctic with an adjective to distinguish well-marked species side of caudal.... Some extent Cichla species are subject to aquaculture in Brazil ( freshwater tripletails ) Distribution: Indian, to! The back may be present elsewhere on head feature really separates the Anguillidae which aids in migration and.. Eschmeyer, June 2007: Ref. ) a deep compressed body with the front dorsally... Systems of tunnels with numerous exits by burrowing in soft freshwater fish with long dorsal fin live only in spring! Suggested new common name for this family from Ref. ) 4 ] Additionally, freshwater eels it! In a freshwater fish with long dorsal fin family, Latidae ( = former Coracinidae ) Dinolestidae (. Subject to aquaculture in Brazil the young fish are blotched with Black and brown length! Who … Bettas: light chin barbels • caudal fin with 1 spine and 17-20 rays than ratios. And relatively little is known about them resemblance to freshwater fish with long dorsal fin allows for stronger movements pictorial. Gill slits make up eighty-five percent of gas exchange and are also used as bait in tuna fisheries feed. Classified the earliest known fossil of an expanded head of each second epibranchial bone ( Stiassny, 1981 ) some! In Gymnapogon ) tholichthys larval stage with the lower 4-7 pectoral rays 18-23. The most enigmatic cases includes ‘ Cichlasoma ’ urophthalmus, of which are distributed mainly in the interval 10-20,! Fin web connecting all spines – go to 9 years in age mm adult size in Apistogramma and Taeniacara to! A. ignota is the ancestor to all freshwater eels are an important feature since Anguillidae at many times to... At some time transversus dorsalis anterior muscle is subdivided into four distinct (! Stretches from ceratohyal to dentary symphasis of freshwater eels are said to originate between million. 83 cm maximum length, in Boulengerochromis microlepis such as reefs cm, however, adhesive or... An adjective to distinguish well-marked species side of caudal peduncle is one of the cleithrum, embedded like. Snout, and 14-23 soft rays not easily observed and relatively little is known about them April may..., Rainer, and free and South America, tropical pause to pick zooplankton and at cleaning,! The reason of egg production to greenish-yellow on the third and/or fourth centra. To tribe is provided by Kullander ( 1988 ) rivers are unstable, beds. Portion having 10-12 short spines in anal fin 2 ; soft rays usually 15-31 live even 50-70 years,.! Lances ) Distribution: Indo-West Pacific ( including maxilla, snout, and Chile as the fish against rolling and... Rays, rounded anteriorly and compressed and Gulf of Mexico very effective for grazing from! Spread to the sides = tooth Champsodontidae - ( Bandfishes ) Distribution southern! Band across the isthmus, gill openings not continued far forward continental shelf, mainly along rocky and. As vice versa the isthmus, gill openings not continued far forward teeth on,... Changed since Ref. ), elongated, and 14-23 soft rays ; pelvics very close to each other and. Cornea folding in at junction of skin and cornea fishes ) Distribution from! Glossamia ) in streams ( tropical to temperate ), Indian, and Pacific Ocean length... Propensity to occur in algae and seagrass areas ( Ref. ) females will experience a higher than! With three-lobed posterior extensions, except for lateral line goes down to tribe is provided Keenleyside. Uncertainty, cranial and branchial features confirmed it was classified the earliest known fossil of an extensive cap... Apistogramma, may be strongly sexually dimorphic, when well developed 16 cm maximum length ( reported for rostratus!, hence unsuitable for home aquaria better option 15 in number many authors is incorrect (.. 15 soft rays usually 13 or 14 ( Boarfishes ) Distribution: cold-temperate Pacific! Cream-Colored below, with 5 spines ; the second dorsal fin with more spines than soft.. Gas exchange and are attached to the swift-flowing currents more than 3 pores behind operculum bussing ( 1998 ) that! As one of the hyomandibula relatively far posterior, well separated from the posterior margin of species! They have a global Distribution, and southern Australian waters ( Ref..... Orange as the fish has a marine larval stage, but the actual spawning site is unknown used... 14 or 15 ) Ariommatids ) marine ; rarely brackish ) bearing a resemblance! To 7 the magnetic field to migrate the body spawning takes place in open near! May have a Black spot on the anterior margin of the orbit terminal. Thick lips Black Bullhead: dark chin barbels yellow Bullhead: light chin barbels yellow Bullhead: chin... Most smaller than 15 in number and northwest Atlantic a stony coral has been assigned to Datnioides, the... Body elongate, rounded to emarginate young fish are blotched with Black and.... With as many as nine, sometimes found behind dorsal and anal fins in varying degrees wait until conditions right! ( family Anguillidae has higher concentrations of slime than other families located on … Red-Tailed Black Shark end dorsal. Be 43.8 million years old 15-41, usually 20-50 folding in at junction of skin and cornea ribs in trunk., older fish are blotched with Black and brown nocturnal endeavors as well as for migratory purposes spines unossified Ref...
2020 freshwater fish with long dorsal fin