New chemical hydrogen storage materials and regeneration processes, including ammonia borane, ionic liquids, heteroatom containing organics, catalytic processes, and new concepts for hydrogen release and spent-fuel regeneration. However, the attainment of the 2010 targets will be a very positive indicator of future success. Which event describes an output in a car's engineered subsystem? The attainment of the majority of the 2015 targets is still difficult to predict. Also, full battery system development is done in collaboration with the USABC through competitive subcontracts that are at least 50 percent cost-shared. Soft Magnetic Materials. One way that this can be achieved is to increase the cell size and decrease or eliminate the number of cells in parallel. The DOE should continue to support the development and dissemination of the open-source-code computational fluid dynamics program KIVA. The battery may use up to 70 percent of the total energy; however, some manufacturers may limit the used energy to a narrower range to increase life, minimize warranty concerns, and make allowances for the performance (capacity and/or power) deterioration over the life of the battery. The predictive capabilities of the current CFD codes are very good. Generally in most vehicles the front wheels(or the front axle) are steered and the rear wheels follow it. Systems configurations no longer demonstrated to be optimal should be abandoned in favor of best proven technology. These topologies have been thoroughly investigated over the past 50 years, and basically the selection depends on optimizing the operation. “Direct Hydrogen PEMFC Manufacturing Cost Estimation for Automotive Applications.” Presentation at the DOE 2009 Annual Merit Review, May 21, Arlington, Virginia. The centers of excellence are well managed and have provided an excellent approach for organizing and managing a large, diverse research activity with many participants at various locations. A slow revolving engine produces little power which is not sufficient to accelerate. Basically no suitable storage material has been identified and developed. 35 MPa and 70 MPa) compressed hydrogen. The Multiyear Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan was developed for the years 2005-2015 (2007). By-product/spent material removal: Important issues to be addressed. In making cost projections, the assumptions are many and in some cases are based on still-unproven laboratory-phase performance. Understanding how auto parts work together to form automotive systems allows drivers to confidently discuss automotive problems with their mechanics. Metal resource onstraints for electric vehicle batteries, Transportation Research Record D 6: 297-324. 2008. During acceleration an HEV or BEV should have the “feel” of conventional vehicles, although the high torque produced by electric motors, especially at low speed, is probably an advantage. SOURCE: DOE (2009a), Section 3.3, Hydrogen Storage. Battery Chargers. With respect to this review, since FY 2007 approximately $140 million (see Figure 3-2) has been appropriated in total to support the attainment of the fuel cell technology roadmap R&D (DOE, 2009a) objectives so that the Partnership’s chances of meeting the 2010 targets and the 2015 commercialization-readiness decision goal are enhanced. The storage system costs are currently under review and will be changed at a future date. Hydrogen-fueled ICEs have also been investigated. Allowable degradation outside these limits is TBD. S. eSSIon. The technical team reported achieving engine loads of 16 bar (1.6 MPa) indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) with homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) using a combination of exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) and intake boost. Other Subsystems An automobile has many subsystems. Future plans include continued R&D on breakthrough hydrogen storage materials with increased emphasis on engineering analysis, a broadening of the effort to include all of the targets (versus just the capacity targets), and increased coordination between the basic and applied activities. The team has assumed that the base engine cost will be $20/kW, and the incremental cost for the technology improvements, which includes enhanced aftertreatment, will be $10/kW. Furthermore, single-cell and short-stack tests at the laboratory scale have demonstrated (using accelerated test protocols) much longer run times (3M Company, 7,200 hours)8 that, if demonstrated in vehicles under realistic on-road conditions, would meet or exceed the goals of the Partnership. Chemical hydrogen storage systems (typically regenerated off-board). Not a MyNAP member yet? AuYeung. Additional information available January 2010 indicated the following: Soft magnetic materials: Some of the work was concluded as not being promising. Recommendation 3-8. In order to address the fuel storage needs of and to set priorities for fuel cell applications, the EERE plans to conduct a Request for Information (RFI) and a workshop during FY 2010. This includes any coating or enclosure that incorporates the envelope of the storage system. Engine Subsystems As you can see in the previous descriptions under "What Can Go Wrong," an engine has a number of systems that help it do its job of converting fuel into motion. Their working principle is same, i.e. The latest data show the following accomplishments: Motor design. In order to achieve a good conformity with field test, sophisticated vehicle models are needed. The BES budget within the Office of Science also included support of Basic Energy Research Needs for the Hydrogen Economy ($38.3 million in FY 2009). The fuel cell power-generation subsystem—containing the fuel cell stack and its balance of plant (BoP) consisting of the supporting air and fuel supply, thermal management, and controls—is arguably the most complex and challenging element of the entire hydrogen-fueled vehicle. The faster the operation the greater the efficiency. Measures should be taken to continue research on the most promising approaches for onboard hydrogen storage materials. In addition, it continues to pursue research activities toward even-higher-energy batteries for BEV applications. A peak thermal efficiency for an ICE of 43 percent has. The simulation currently being used is KIVA III, developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). A three-dimensional performance model of large-format cells may be useful in predicting the over-voltage and temperature variations in large-format cells during high-rate charging (see, e.g., the NREL model, Kim and Smith [2008]). However, the target of no cost penalty for such a large weight reduction was unrealistic when set, and it remains unrealistic. 35 MPa). The cost assessment of a fuel cell power plant is difficult to make, since the stack and BoP materials and system technology are still evolving. It was unable to. Improved Windings. The steering subsystem is responsible for providing the operator with maximum directional control over the vehicle via the steering wheel. 2009. 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2020 automobile systems and subsystems